The term “repair” is used here to denote methods that are targeted at local defects in a pipe – even if those local defects are widely distributed with the pipe system. The main difference from “renovation” is that, in repair-focused techniques, the main body of the pipe does not receive a structural or corrosion-protection enhancement. This does not mean that the techniques have less applicability but rather that they can be targeted at different problems or at different stages of a system-wide upgrade. For instance, a pipe network with generally sound pipes but with some occasional localized damage or leakage could be addressed by repair or grouting techniques (as opposed to a renovation) whereas pipes with significant corrosion or multiple defects in individual sections might be better addressed with a more comprehensive renovation rather than distributed repairs.