Depth / Elevation

Structurally, the groundwater level at a site controls the external groundwater pressure that will act on a pipe or installed liner. It also has an important impact on the provisions for face support in microtunneling or tunneling projects.

It can also be important to assess fluctuations of groundwater levels over time (from historical records or by ongoing monitoring of groundwater wells) and to assess any potential long-term trends that may arise from natural or man-made influences (e.g. starting or ceasing industrial pumping in the region).