Discrete Stress-Strain Sensors

Discrete stress-strain sensors can be used for special monitoring applications within undeground systems but the application environment and access limitations prevent their widespread use. In extended pipe networks, it is difficult to use hard wired sensors because of the cabling issues and the long-term functioning required for battery/wireless sensor systems is still a challenge. Wireless sensor systems that can scavenge energy from fluid flow or vibrations coupled with wireless means of communication are active areas of research for distributed sensor systems within extended pipe networks.