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Wall Impact Methods

Wall impact methods can be as simple as hitting the wall of a tunnel with a hammer and listening for the quality of the sound to more sophisticated equipment injecting vibrational impulses into the wall and recording reflections, speed of travel, etc. One long-standing impact test for the non-destructive estimation of concrete strength properties is the Schimdt Hammer test which measures the rebound of a spring-loaded steel ball impacting a wall surface. 

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